Why Plant-based?

Despite access to universal health care, lifesaving vaccinations, clean drinking water, and readily-available healthy food, our society continues to suffer from debilitating lifestyle diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. In Canada, these disease are responsible for nearly two thirds of deaths and are a major contributor to disability and a reduced quality of life. However, these diseases have been shown to be largely preventable (and in some cases, reversible) with the adoption of a whole-foods, plant-based diet. For evidence supporting the benefits of plant-based eating in the management and prevention of chronic diseases, click on the links above.

Statcan.gc.ca. (2015). Leading causes of death, by sex (Both sexes). Accessed April 8, 2017 from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/hlth36a-eng.htm

Diabetes

Barnard, N. D., Cohen, J., Jenkins, D. J., Turner-McGrievy, G., Gloede, L. et al. (2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74 week clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5): 1588S – 1596S. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339401

Belinova, L., Kehleova, H., Malinska, H., Topolcan, O., Vrzalova, J., Oliyarnyk, O., et al. (2014). Differential acute postprandial effects of proccessed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study. PLoS One, 9(9): e107561. Article available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4164634/

Rinaldi S., Campbell, E. E., Fournier, J., O’ Connor, C., & Madill, J. (2016). A comprehensive review of the literature supporting recommendations from the Canadian Diabetes Association for the use of a plant-based diet for management of type 2 diabetes. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 40(5): 471-477. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476051

Yokoyama, Y., Barnard, N. D., Levin, S. M., & Watanabe, M. (2014). Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 4(5): 373-382. Abstact available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25414824

Cancer

Chen, Z., Wang, P. P., Woodrow, J., Zhu, Y., Roebothan, B., Mclaughlin, J. R., et al. (2015). Nutrition Journal, 15: 14-18. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592002

Dinu, M., Abbate, R., Gensini, G. F., Casini, A., & Sofi, F. (2016). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Epub ahead of print. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26853923

Key, T. J., Appleby, P. N., Crowe, F. L., Bradbury, K. E., Schmidt, J. A., & Travis, R. C. (2014). Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, 2246 vegans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100 Suppl 1: 378S-385S. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24898235

Orlich, M. J., Singh, P. N., Sabate, J., Fan, J., Sveen, L., & Bennett, H., et al. (2015). Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(5): 767-776. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751512

Pierce, J. P., Faerber, S., Wright, F. A., Rock, C. L., Newman, V., Flatt, S. W., et al. (2002). A randomized trial of the effect of plant-based dietary pattern on additional breast cancer events and survival: the women’s healthy eating and living (WHEL) study. Controlled Clinical Trials, 23(6): 728-756. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12505249

Tantamango-Bartley, Y., Knutsen, S. F., Knutsen, R., Jacobsen, B. K., Fan, J., Beeson, W. L, et al. (2016). Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1):153-160. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561618

Hypertension

Appleby, P. N., Davey, G. K., Key, T. J. (2002). Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutrition, 5(5): 645-654. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12372158

Pettersen, B. J., Anousheh, R., Fan, J., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., & Fraser, G. E. (2012). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutrition, 15(10): 1909-1916. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22230619

Yokoyama, Y., Kunihiro, N., Barnard, N. D., Takegami, M., Watanabe, M., Sekikawa, A., et al. (2014). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(4): 577-587. Abstract available from: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1832195?hc_location=ufi

Cardiovascular Disease

Ferdowsian, H. R., & Barnard, N. D. (2009). Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids. American Journal of Cardiology, 104(7):947-956. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19766762

Fraser, G., Katuli, S., Anousheh, R., Knutsen, S., Herring, P., & Fan, J. (2015). Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study – 2. Public Health Nutrition, 18(3): 537-545. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24636393

Jenkins, D. J., Wong, J. M., Kendall, C. W., Esfahani, A., Ng, V. W., Leong, T. C., et al. (2014). Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 4(2): e003505. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24500611

Kuchta,  A., Lebiedzi?ska, A., Fija?kowski, M., Ga??ska, R., Kreft, E., Toto?, M., et al. (2016). Impact of plant-based diet on lipid risk factors for atherosclerosis. Cardiology Journal, 23(2): 141-148. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779974

Toohey, M. L., Harris, M. A., DeWitt, W., Foster, G., Schmidt, W. D., & Melby, C. L. (1998). Cardiovascular disease risk factors are lower in African-American vegans compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 17(5): 425-434. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9791838

Obesity

Barnard, N. D., Levin, S. M., & Yokoyama, Y. (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(6): 954-969. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620754

Moore, W. J., McGrievy, M. E., Turner-McGrievy, G. M. (2015). Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: the Nuew DIETs study. Eating Behavior, 19: 33-38. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164391

Spencer, E. A., Appleby, P. N., Davey, G. K., & Key, T. J. (2003). Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27(6): 728-734. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12833118

Mishra, S., Xu, J., Agarwal, U., Gonzales, J., Levin, S., & Barnard, N. D. (2013). A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(7): 718-724. Abstract available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695207